A 15-month-old black male was brought to the pediatric emergency department by his grandmother because she was concerned about his 2 swollen big toes. The patient’s grandmother said that the swelling began 36 hours prior and that her grandson’s big toes had continued to increase in size. She denied trauma, bites, or unusual exposures and said that although her grandson had been fussier than usual that day, he was eating and drinking normally and had normal urine output.
The patient had a history of developmental delay, but was otherwise healthy. He had no rashes, and there was no recent history of vomiting, diarrhea, difficulty breathing, or fever.
Examination of the patient’s skin revealed diffuse edema and erythema of the bilateral great toes (FIGURE 1A), with large overlying bullae extending from the dorsal surface of the base of the great toes around to the plantar (volar) surface of the foot (FIGURE 1B). The bullae on the plantar surface were approximately 4 cm long, extending from the tip of the toes proximally to the region of the head of the first metatarsal.
The patient’s vital signs were notable for a rectal temperature of 100.2° F and a heart rate of 180 beats per minute.
Initial lab tests included a complete blood count (CBC), blood cultures, and urinalysis with urine culture. The CBC revealed a white blood count of 27,000/mcL (normal: 6000-17,500/mcL). Both wound culture and herpes simplex viral culture were negative. An intranasal surveillance culture for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was also negative.
Given the patient’s fever and leukocytosis, a 100-mg dose of intravenous clindamycin was administered.