- Hockey is a high-speed collision sport with one of the highest injury rates among all sports.
- Use of a helmet with visors or full-face shields significantly reduces the risk for eye injury.
- Broken portions of teeth should be found and placed in a protective medium such as saline, saliva, or milk for transport.
- A player with unresolved concussion symptoms should not be allowed to return to the ice.
- Shoulder dominance, which determines stick grip, is an important consideration in the treatment of shoulder instability in an ice hockey player.
On a surface of ice in Windsor, Nova Scotia in the middle of the 19th century, the modern game of ice hockey evolved.1 A blend of hurley, a Gaelic sport, and lacrosse, from the native Mi’kmaq culture, the sport of ice hockey gained rapidly in popularity throughout Canada and is now the country’s national sport. Hockey quickly spread to the United States and then Europe. It is presently played in 77 countries across the world.2
Hockey players can reach speeds of up to 48 km (~30 miles) per hour on razor-sharp skates on an ice surface surrounded by rigid plastic composite boards topped with plexiglass.3 They use sticks made of wood, aluminum, or a composite material to advance a 6-ounce vulcanized rubber puck on the opposing goal, and this puck sometimes reaches speeds over 160 km (~100 miles) per hour. Older, male players are allowed to make physical contact with their opposing counterparts to separate them from the puck (body-checking). Not surprisingly, the potential risk for injury in hockey is high. At the 2010 Winter Olympics, men’s ice hockey players had the highest rate of injury of any other competitors there—more than 30% were affected.4
Hockey is played and enjoyed by athletes ranging widely in age. Youth hockey leagues accept players as young as 5 years. Hockey can become a lifelong recreational activity. In North America, old timers’ leagues have many players up to age 70 years.6 According to International Ice Hockey Federation data for 2016, more than 543,000 and 639,500 people play hockey in the United States and Canada, respectively.2 Most of the rules, protective equipment, skates, ice surfaces, and goal sizes are the same in men’s and women’s hockey.7 The major difference is in body-checking—this practice is not allowed at any age in women’s ice hockey.
In this article, we review the evaluation and management of common head, neck, and shoulder hockey injuries for physicians who provide medical support and coverage for youth, amateur, and senior hockey teams.
Evaluation and Management of Common Hockey Injuries
Although eye injuries are less common than musculoskeletal injuries and concussions in hockey, they are a serious risk for recreational and competitive players alike. Furthermore, recovery may be difficult, and eye injuries can have serious lifelong consequences.8 In hockey, the most commonly reported eye injuries are periorbital contusions and lacerations, hyphema, corneal and conjunctival abrasions, orbital fractures, and ruptured globes (Table 2).9,10
As a contact sport, hockey often involves high-impact, blunt-force trauma. The trauma in hockey results from collisions with other players, the boards, hockey sticks, and pucks. It is therefore not surprising that the most common ocular injuries in this sport are periorbital contusions. Although most contusions cause only mild swelling and ecchymosis of the soft tissues around the eye, there is potential for serious consequences. In a Scandinavia study, Leivo and colleagues10 found that 9% of patients who sustained a periocular contusion also had a clinically significant secondary diagnosis, such as retinal tear or hemorrhage, eyelid laceration, vitreous hemorrhage, or retinal detachment. Although the study was hospital-based, and therefore biased toward more severe cases, its findings highlight the potential severity of eye injuries in hockey. Furthermore, the study found that the majority of players who sustained blunt trauma to the eye itself required lifelong follow-up because of increased risk for glaucoma. This is particularly true for hyphema, as this finding indicates significant damage to intraocular tissues.10Players can also sustain fractures of the orbital bones, including orbital blowout fractures. Typical signs and symptoms of blowout fractures include diplopia, proptosis or enophthalmos, infraorbital hypoesthesia, painful and decreased extraocular movement (particularly upgaze), and palpable crepitance caused by sinus air entering the lower eyelid.11 If orbital fracture is suspected, as it should be in any case in which the injured player experiences pain with eye movement or diplopia, the player should be referred to the ED for computed tomography (CT) and ophthalmologic evaluation.12 Continued participation seriously risks making the injury much worse, particularly should another impact occur. In addition, given the impact needed to cause orbital fractures, consideration must be given to the potential for a coexisting concussion injury.
Severe direct trauma to the eye—from a puck, a stick, or a fist—can result in a ruptured globe, a particularly serious injury that requires immediate surgical attention. Signs and symptoms of a ruptured globe are rarely subtle, but associated eyelid swelling or laceration may obscure the injury, delaying proper diagnosis and treatment. More obvious signs include severely reduced vision, hemorrhagic chemosis (swelling) of the conjunctiva, and an irregular or peaked pupil. If a rupture or any significant intraocular injury is suspected, it is crucial to avoid applying any pressure to the globe, as this can significantly worsen the damage to the intraocular tissues. Use of a helmet with protective shields and cages attached markedly reduces the risk for such injuries.13All eye injuries require prompt assessment, which allows for appropriate management and prevention of secondary damage.14 Initial evaluation of a patient with ocular trauma should begin with external examination for lacerations, swelling, or orbital rim step-off deformity. The physician should also check visual acuity in order to assess for significant vision impairment (counting fingers or reading a sign in the arena; confrontation visual fields). This should be done before attending to any periocular injuries, with the uninjured side serving as a control. Next, the physician should assess the extraocular eye movements as well as the size, shape, and reactivity of the pupils. Particular attention should be paid to detecting any deficit in extraocular movement or irregularity in pupil size, shape, or reactivity, as such findings are highly suggestive of serious injury to the globe.13 Hyphema (blood in anterior chamber of eye anterior to pupil) should be suspected if vision is reduced and the pupil cannot be clearly visualized. However, a bright red clot is not always apparent at time of injury or if the amount of blood is small. An irregular pupil, or a pupil that does not constrict well to light, is also a red flag for serious contusion injury to the eye, and requires ophthalmologic evaluation. It is important to keep in mind that blunt trauma severe enough to produce hyphema or an irregular and poorly reactive pupil is often associated with retinal damage as well, including retinal edema or detachment.
Minor injuries (eg, small foreign bodies, minor periocular contusions and lacerations) can often be managed rink-side. Foreign bodies not embedded in the cornea, but lodged under the upper eyelid, can sometimes be removed by everting the eyelid and sweeping with a moistened cotton swab or using diffuse, sterile saline irrigation.11 Corneal abrasions generally cause severe pain, photophobia, and tearing and are easily diagnosed with use of topical fluorescein and a blue light. A topical anesthetic can be extremely helpful in this setting, as it allows for proper pain-free evaluation, but should never be used in an ongoing manner for pain relief. Small lacerations of the brow can be sutured with 5-0 or 6-0 nylon or closed with 2-Octyl cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive (Dermabond). Eyelid lacerations, unless very small, are best managed by an ophthalmologist; care must be taken to rule out injury to the deeper orbital tissues and eye. If serious injury is suspected, or the eye cannot be appropriately evaluated, it should be stabilized and protected with a protective shield or plastic cup, and the player should be transferred to an ED for appropriate ophthalmologic evaluation.13Most eye injuries are accidental, caused by sticks or deflected pucks, but 18% are acquired in fights.8 Use of visors or full-face cages effectively minimizes the rate of eye injuries.8,13,15,16 In a cohort study of 282 elite amateur ice hockey players, the risk of eye injury was 4.7 times higher in players without face protection than in players who used half-face shields; there were no eye injuries in players who used full-face protection.13 For visors to prevent eye injury, they must be positioned to cover the eyes and the lower edge of the nose in all projections.10